DOI: https://doi.org/10.7203/relieve.23.2.9078

Estilos de aprendizaje en estudiantes universitarios y enseñanza centrada en el aprendizaje


Resumen


El objetivo de este trabajo era valorar el impacto de los métodos centrados en el aprendizaje, implementados por cuatro profesores/as, en los estilos de aprendizaje de los alumnos de la asignatura de Procesos y Contextos Educativos en el Máster de Educación Secundaria de la Universidad de Valencia. También se pretendía analizar la valoración del alumnado sobre los métodos utilizados. La muestra fue de 117 estudiantes, que cursaban estos estudios durante el curso 2014-15, repartidos en cuatro grupos de cuatro especialidades diferentes. Se usó un diseño cuasiexperimental, con medidas de pretest/postest, mediante el cuestionario ILS (Learning Styles Inventory) de Vermunt (1994); además, el alumnado valoró los métodos utilizados por sus profesores mediante un cuestionario cuantitativo. Los profesores utilizaron métodos centrados en el aprendizaje con diferentes formatos metodológicos en los cuatro grupos. Se constataron mejoras significativas en un número importante de las variables que analiza el cuestionario (aprendizaje profundo, autorregulación, orientación centrada en el interés personal, uso del conocimiento, cooperación, etc) en los cuatro grupos, siendo las diferencias mayores en los grupos 1 y 4 que en los grupos 2 y 3. Las comparaciones entre los grupos reflejaron diferencias significativas en el pretest entre los cuatro grupos, que no se dieron en el postest, igualándose los grupos. Los alumnos valoraron positivamente los métodos utilizados. Los resultados corroboraron la influencia positiva de los métodos centrados en el aprendizaje en los estilos de aprendizaje de los estudiantes, y aportan ideas para la mejora de los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje del alumnado universitario.

Palabras clave


Aprendizaje centrado en el alumno, Estilos de aprendizaje, Aprendizaje Profundo, Autorregulación, Estudiantes universitarios

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