DOI: https://doi.org/10.7203/relieve.21.2.7841

Desarrollo y validación de una escala de medida de la empatía intercultural


Resumen


La investigación y la práctica relacionadas con el uso de estrategias empáticas en entornos educativos multiculturales se está revelando como una de las más eficaces vías para la lucha contra el sesgo intergrupal. El objeto del presente estudio es diseñar un instrumento de medición de la empatía intercultural en su componente afectivo, específico para la población española y hacia la población de origen marroquí, que permita diagnosticar este rasgo o capacidad antes de aplicar estrategias educativas en entornos multiculturales. Con este propósito se utilizaron dos muestras de estudiantes universitarios para realizar una validación cruzada y, mediante análisis factorial exploratorio (utilizando el software Factor) y confirmatorio (SPSS-AMOS), se obtuvo una estructura de 3 factores: preocupación empática, comprensión y afecto. Los índices de bondad de ajuste, así como la validez y fiabilidad revelada por los análisis multidimensionales, demuestran que el modelo es óptimo. Finalmente se discute la conveniencia de diseñar instrumentos específicos en los que se tenga en consideración el perfil de las poblaciones objeto de estudio en ámbitos multiculturales.

Palabras clave


Empatía; comunicación intercultural; validación; sesgo intergrupal

Texto completo:

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Referencias


Albiero, P. & Matricardi, G. (2013). Empathy towards people of different race and ethnicity: Further empirical evidence for the Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 37, 648-655. DOI: http://dx.doi.org10.1016/j.ijintrel.2013.05.003

Álvarez Castillo, J. L. (2005). Las metas en la reducción del prejuicio automático: experimentando la discrepancia. Psicothema, 17, 71-75.

Álvarez Castillo, J. L., Jiménez Eguizábal, A., Palmero Cámara, M. C. & González González, H. (2014). The fight against prejudice in older adults: perspective taking effectiveness. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, 46, 137-147. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0120-0534(14)70017-2

Álvarez Castillo, J. L., Palmero Cámara, M. C. & Jiménez Eguizábal, A. (2011). Prejudice reduction in university programs for older adults. Educational Gerontology, 37, 164-190. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601271003608811

Barnett, G. & Mann, R. E. (2013). Empathy deficits and sexual offending: A model of obstacles to empathy. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 18, 228-239. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2012.11.010

Baron-Cohen, S. & Wheelwright, S. (2004). The empathy quotient: An investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high functioning autism, and normal sex differences. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 163-175. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/b:jadd.0000022607.19833.00

Batson, C. D. (1987). Self-report ratings of empathic emotion. En N. Eisenberg & J. Strayer (Eds.), Empathy and its development (pp. 356–360). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Batson, C. D. (1991). The altruism question: Toward a social-psychological answer. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Batson, C. D., Polycarpou, M. P., Harmon-Jones, E., Imhoff, H. J., Mitchner, E. C., Bednar, L. L., Klein, T. R. & Highberger, L. (1997). Empathy and attitudes: Can feeling for a member of a stigmatized group improve feelings toward the group? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 105-118. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.72.1.105

Belacchi, C. & Farina, E. (2012). Feeling and Thinking of Others: Affective and Cognitive Empathy and Emotion Comprehension in Prosocial/Hostile Preschoolers. Aggressive Behavior, 38, 150-165. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.21415

Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indices in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 238-246. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.107.2.238

Block, J. H. (1976). Assessing sex differences: Issues, problems, and pitfalls. Merrill – Palmer Quarterly, 22, 283-308.

Butrus, N. & Witenberg, R. T. (2013). Some Personality Predictors of Tolerance to Human Diversity: The Roles of Openness, Agreeableness, and Empathy. Australian Psychologist, 48, 290-298. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-9544.2012.00081.x

Byrne, B. M. (2012). Structural Equation Modeling with Mplus: basic concepts, applications, and programming. New York: Taylor & Francis Group.

Byrne, B.M. (2001). Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS. Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming. London: LEA.

CIS (2014). Catálogo de encuestas. Inmigración. Retrieved from http://www.cis.es/cis/opencm/ES/1_encuestas/estudios/listaTematico.jsp?tema=82&todos=no

Davis, M.H. (1980). A multidimensional Approach to Individual Differences in Empathy. JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 10, 85.

Davis, M.H. (1983). Measuring Individual Differences in Empathy: Evidence for a Multidimensional Approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 113-126. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.44.1.113

Dyche, L. & Zayas, L. H. (2001). Cross-cultural empathy and training the contemporary psychotherapist. Clinical Social Work Journal, 29, 245-258. doi: http://dx.doi.org10.1023/A:1010407728614

Eisenberg, N. (2000). Emotion, Regulation, and Moral Development. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 665-697. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.51.1.665

Eisenberg, N. & Lennon, R. (1983). Sex differences in empathy and related capacities. Psychological Bulletin, 94, 100-131. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.94.1.100

Fernández-Pinto, I., López-Pérez, B. & Márquez, M. (2008). Empatía: Medidas, teorías y aplicaciones en revisión. Anales de psicología, 2, 284-298. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6018/42831

Gerdes, K. E., Segal, E. A. & Lietz, C. A. (2010). Conceptualising and measuring empathy. British Journal of Social Work, 40, 2326-2343. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcq048

González González, H. (2011). La toma de perspectiva en el control del sesgo intergrupal: variables moduladoras de tipo individual y pautas pedagógicas. Universidad de Córdoba, Servicio de Publicaciones.

González González, H., Álvarez Castillo, J. L. & Fernández Caminero, G. (2012). Fundamentando la formación de los educadores profesionales en competencias interculturales: la toma de perspectiva. Bordón, 64, 89-107.

Gónzalez, N., Abad, J. & Lèvy, J.P. (2006). Normalidad y otros supuestos en análisis de covarianzas”. In J. P.Lévy (Ed.), Modelización con estructuras de covarianzas (pp. 31-57). La Coruña: Netbiblo.

Green, J. W. (1998). Cultural awareness in the human services: A multi-ethnic approach (3rd ed.). Toronto: Allyn & Bacon.

Hardy, S. A., Walker, L. J., Rackham, D. D. & Olsen, J. A. (2012). Religiosity and Adolescent Empathy and Aggression: The Mediating Role of Moral Identity. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 4, 237-248. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0027566

Harman, H. H. (1962). Modern Factor Analysis, 2nd Edition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Harris, S. T. & Picchioni, M. M. (2013). A review of the role of empathy in violence risk in mental disorders. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 18, 335-342. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2012.12.003

Hodges, S. D., Clark, B. A. M. & Myers, M. W. (2011). Better living through perspective taking. In Biswas-Diener (Ed.), Positive psychology as social change (pp. 193-218). New York, NY: Springer Science + Business Media; US. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-9938-9_12

Hoffman, M. L. (1975). Developmental synthesis of affect and cognition and its implications for altruistic motivation. Developmental Psychology, 11, 607-622. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.11.5.607

Hoffman, M. L. (1977). Personality and social development. Annual Review of Psychology, 28, 295-321. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.28.020177.001455

Hoffman, M. L. (1981). The development of empathy. In J. Philippe Rushton & Richard M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Altruism and helping behavior social, personality and developmental perspectives. New Jersey: L.E.A.

Hoffman, M. L. (1982). Development of prosocial motivation: Empathy and guilt. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.), The development of prosocial behavior. New York: Academic Press.

Hoffman, M. L. (1983). Empathy, guilt and social cognition. In W. F. Overton (Ed.), The relationship between social and cognitive development. London: L.E.A.

Howe, D. (2013). Empathy. What it is and why it matters. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.

INE (2015). INEbase: Operaciones estadísticas: clasificación por temas. Retrieved from http://www.ine.es/inebmenu/indice.htm

Joreskog, K. G. & Sorbom, D. (1988). PRELIS: A program for multivariate data screening and data summarization. A pre-processor for LISREL (2nded.). Mooresville, IN: Scientific Software.

Kelley, T. L. (1935). Essential Traits of Mental Life, Harvard Studies in Education, vol. 26. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling (3rd Ed.). New York, The Guilford Press.

Lennon, R. & Eisenberg, N. (1987). Gender and age differences in empathy and sympathy. In N. Eisenberg & J. Strayer (Eds.), Empathy and its development (pp. 195-217). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Li, W., Mai, X. & Liu, C. (2014). The default mode network and social understanding of others: what do brain connectivity studies tell us. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 1-15. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00074

López-Pérez, B., Fernández-Pinto, I. & Abad, F. J. (2008). TECA. Test de Empatía Cognitiva y Afectiva. Madrid: Tea Ediciones, S.A.

Lorenzo-Seva, U. & Ferrando, P.J. (2006). FACTOR: A computer program to fit the exploratory factor analysis model, Behavioral Research Methods, Instruments and Computers, 38, 88-91. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03192753

Maccoby, E. E. & Jacklin, C. N. (1974). The psychology of sex differences. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Mardia, K. V. (1970). Measures of multivariate skewnees and kurtosis with applications. Biometrika, 57, 519-530 DOI:

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Albiero, P. & Matricardi, G. (2013). Empathy towards people of different race and ethnicity: Further empirical evidence for the Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 37, 648-655. doi: http://dx.doi.org10.1016/j.ijintrel.2013.05.003

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2013.05.003

Álvarez Castillo, J. L. (2005). Las metas en la reducción del prejuicio automático: experimentando la discrepancia. Psicothema, 17, 71-75.

Álvarez Castillo, J. L., Jiménez Eguizábal, A., Palmero Cámara, M. C. & González González, H. (2014). The fight against prejudice in older adults: perspective taking effectiveness. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, 46, 137-147. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0120-0534(14)70017-2

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0120-0534(14)70017-2

Álvarez Castillo, J.L., Palmero Cámara, M.C. & Jiménez Eguizábal, A. (2011). Prejudice reduction in university programs for older adults. Educational Gerontology, 37, 164-190. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601271003608811

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601271003608811

Barnett, G. & Mann, R. E. (2013). Empathy deficits and sexual offending: A model of obstacles to empathy. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 18, 228-239. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2012.11.010

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2012.11.010

Baron-Cohen, S. & Wheelwright, S. (2004). The empathy quotient: An investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high functioning autism, and normal sex differences. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 163-175. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/b:jadd.0000022607.19833.00

http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:JADD.0000022607.19833.00

Batson, C. D. (1987). Self-report ratings of empathic emotion. En N. Eisenberg & J. Strayer (Eds.), Empathy and its development (pp. 356–360). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Batson, C. D. (1991). The altruism question: Toward a social-psychological answer. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Batson, C. D., Polycarpou, M. P., Harmon-Jones, E., Imhoff, H. J., Mitchner, E. C., Bednar, L. L., Klein, T. R. & Highberger, L. (1997). Empathy and attitudes: Can feeling for a member of a stigmatized group improve feelings toward the group? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 105-118.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.72.1.105

Belacchi, C. & Farina, E. (2012). Feeling and Thinking of Others: Affective and Cognitive Empathy and Emotion Comprehension in Prosocial/Hostile Preschoolers. Aggressive Behavior, 38, 150-165. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.21415

http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.21415

Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indices in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 238-246.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.107.2.238

Block, J. H. (1976). Assessing sex differences: Issues, problems, and pitfalls. Merrill – Palmer Quarterly, 22, 283-308.

Butrus, N. & Witenberg, R. T. (2013). Some Personality Predictors of Tolerance to Human Diversity: The Roles of Openness, Agreeableness, and Empathy. Australian Psychologist, 48, 290-298. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-9544.2012.00081.x

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-9544.2012.00081.x

Byrne, B. M. (2012). Structural Equation Modeling with Mplus: basic concepts, applications, and programming. New York: Taylor & Francis Group.

Byrne, B.M. (2001). Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS. Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming. Londres: LEA.

CIS (2014). Catálogo de encuestas. Inmigración. Recuperado de http://www.cis.es/cis/opencm/ES/1_encuestas/estudios/listaTematico.jsp?tema=82&todos=no

Davis, M.H. (1980). A multidimensional Approach to Individual Differences in Empathy. JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 10, 85.

Davis, M.H. (1983). Measuring Individual Differences in Empathy: Evidence for a Multidimensional Approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 113-126.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.44.1.113

Dyche, L., & Zayas, L. H. (2001). Cross-cultural empathy and training the contemporary psychotherapist. Clinical Social Work Journal, 29, 245-258. doi: http://dx.doi.org10.1023/A:1010407728614

http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1010407728614

Eisenberg, N. (2000). Emotion, Regulation, and Moral Development. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 665-697. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.51.1.665

http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.51.1.665

Eisenberg, N. & Lennon, R. (1983). Sex differences in empathy and related capacities. Psychological Bulletin, 94, 100-131.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.94.1.100

Fernández-Pinto, I., López-Pérez, B. & Márquez, M. (2008). Empatía: Medidas, teorías y aplicaciones en revisión. Anales de psicología, 2, 284-298. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.6018/42831

Gerdes, K. E., Segal, E. A. & Lietz, C. A. (2010). Conceptualising and measuring empathy. British Journal of Social Work, 40, 2326-2343. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcq048

http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcq048

González González, H. (2011). La toma de perspectiva en el control del sesgo intergrupal: variables moduladoras de tipo individual y pautas pedagógicas. Universidad de Córdoba, Servicio de Publicaciones.

González González, H., Álvarez Castillo, J. L. & Fernández Caminero, G. (2012). Fundamentando la formación de los educadores profesionales en competencias interculturales: la toma de perspectiva. Bordón, 64, 89-107.

Gónzalez, N., Abad, J. & Lèvy, J.P. (2006). Normalidad y otros supuestos en análisis de covarianzas". En J. P. Lévy (Ed.), Modelización con estructuras de covarianzas (pp. 31-57). La Coru-a: Netbiblo.

Green, J. W. (1998). Cultural awareness in the human services: A multi-ethnic approach (3rd ed.). Toronto: Allyn & Bacon.

Hardy, S. A., Walker, L. J., Rackham, D. D. & Olsen, J. A. (2012). Religiosity and Adolescent Empathy and Aggression: The Mediating Role of Moral Identity. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 4, 237-248. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0027566

http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0027566

Harman, H. H. (1962). Modern Factor Analysis, 2nd Edition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Harris, S. T. & Picchioni, M. M. (2013). A review of the role of empathy in violence risk in mental disorders. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 18, 335-342. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2012.12.003

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2012.12.003

Hodges, S. D., Clark, B. A. M. & Myers, M. W. (2011). Better living through perspective taking. En Biswas-Diener (Ed.), Positive psychology as social change (pp. 193-218). New York, NY: Springer Science + Business Media; US.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-9938-9_12

Hoffman, M. L. (1975). Developmental synthesis of affect and cognition and its implications for altruistic motivation. Developmental Psychology, 11, 607-622.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.11.5.607

Hoffman, M. L. (1977). Personality and social development. Annual Review of Psychology, 28, 295-321.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.28.020177.001455

Hoffman, M. L. (1981). The development of empathy. En J. Philippe Rushton & Richard M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Altruism and helping behavior social, personality and developmental perspectives. New Jersey: L.E.A.

Hoffman, M. L. (1982). Development of prosocial motivation: Empathy and guilt. En N. Eisenberg (Ed.), The development of prosocial behavior. New York: Academic Press.

Hoffman, M. L. (1983). Empathy, guilt and social cognition. En W. F. Overton (Ed.), The relationship between social and cognitive development. London: L.E.A.

Howe, D. (2013). Empathy. What it is and why it matters. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.

INE (2015). INEbase: Operaciones estadísticas: clasificación por temas. Consultado en http://www.ine.es/inebmenu/indice.htm

Joreskog, K. G. & Sorbom, D. (1988). PRELIS: A program for multivariate data screening and data summarization. A pre-processor for LISREL (2nded.). Mooresville, IN: Scientific Software.

Kelley, T. L. (1935). Essential Traits of Mental Life, Harvard Studies in Education, vol. 26. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling (3rd Ed.). New York, The Guilford Press.

Lennon, R. & Eisenberg, N. (1987). Gender and age differences in empathy and sympathy. En N. Eisenberg & J. Strayer (Eds.), Empathy and its development (pp. 195-217). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Li, W., Mai, X. & Liu, C. (2014). The default mode network and social understanding of others: what do brain connectivity studies tell us. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 1-15. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00074

http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00074

López-Pérez, B., Fernández-Pinto, I. & Abad, F. J. (2008). TECA. Test de Empatía Cognitiva y Afectiva. Madrid: Tea Ediciones, S.A.

Lorenzo-Seva, U. & Ferrando, P.J. (2006). FACTOR: A computer program to fit the exploratory factor analysis model, Behavioral Research Methods, Instruments and Computers, 38, 88-91. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03192753

http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03192753

Maccoby, E. E. & Jacklin, C. N. (1974). The psychology of sex differences. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Mardia, K. V. (1970). Measures of multivariate skewnees and kurtosis with applications. Biometrika, 57, 519-530

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