Architect genes of the brain: A look at brain evolution through genoarchitecture

Jose Luis Ferran

Abstract


The brain of modern humans is the result of the evolution of a building plan (Bauplan) that began its design 500 hundred millions years ago. The process began in basal chordates (sea animals that were living immersed in the sand) and gave rise to the first building plan of the central nervous system; this was progressively modified and shared by all vertebrates. Behind the story are gene networks, key actors in the process to give identity to the different brain regions. This evolutionary scenario provides the basis for studies that seek to understand what is «conserved» and what is «new» between different vertebrates, as well as the underlying mechanisms involved in this process. This article explores the role of genoarchitectonic studies in this human scientific endeavor.


References


Davidson, E. H. (2006). The regulatory genome. Burlington, MA:

Academic Press.

Ferran, J. L., Sánchez-Arrones, L., Sandoval, J. E., & Puelles, L. (2007).

A model of early molecular regionalization in the chicken embryonic

pretectum. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 505(4), 379–403. doi:

1002/cne.21493

Ferran, J. L., Sánchez-Arrones, L., Bardet, S. M., Sandoval, J. E., Martínezde-

la-Torre, M., & Puelles, L. (2008). Early pretectal gene expression

pattern shows a conserved anteroposterior tripartition in mouse and

chicken. Brain Research Bulletin, 75(2–4), 295–298.

Ferran, J. L., de Oliveira, E. D., Merchan, P., Sandoval, J. E., Sánchez-

Arrones, L., Martínez-de-la-Torre, M., & Puelles, L. (2009).

Genoarchitectonic profile of developing nuclear groups in the chicken

pretectum. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 517(4), 405–451. doi:

1002/cne.22115

Ferran, J. L., Ayad, A., Merchán, P., Morales-

Delgado, N., Sánchez-Arrones, L., Alonso,

A., … Puelles, J. (2015). Exploring brain

genoarchitecture by single and double

chromogenic in situ hybridization (ISH)

and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in wholemount

embryos. In G. Hauptmann (Ed.), In

situ hybridization methods (pp. 61–82). New

York: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-

-8_4

Merchán, P., Bardet, S. M., Puelles, L., &

Ferran, J. L. (2011). Comparison of

pretectal genoarchitectonic pattern between

quail and chicken embryos. Frontiers

in Neuroanatomy, 5, 23. doi: 10.3389/

fnana.2011.00023

Morona, R., Ferran, J. L., Puelles, L.,

& González, A. (2011). Embryonic

genoarchitecture of the pretectum in

Xenopus laevis: A conserved pattern in

tetrapods. The Journal of Comparative

Neurology, 519(6), 1024–1050. doi: 10.1002/

cne.22548

Nieuwenhuys, R., Voogd, J., & Van Huijzen, C. (Eds.). (2008).

The human central nervous system. Berlin: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-

-540-34686-9

Ohno, S. (1970). Evolution by gene duplication. London: Allen and Unwin.

Puelles, L., & Ferran, J. L. (2012). Concept of neural genoarchitecture and

its genomic fundament. Frontiers in Neuroanatomy, 6, 47. doi: 10.3389/

fnana.2012.00047

Puelles, L., & Medina, L. (2002). Field homology as way to reconcile

genetic and developmental variability with adult homology. Brain

Research Bulletin, 57(3–4), 243–255.

Puelles, L., & Rubenstein, J. L. (2003). Forebrain gene expression domains

and the evolving prosomeric model. Trends in Neuroscience, 26(9), 469–

doi: 10.1016/S0166-2236(03)00234-0

Puelles, L. and Rubenstein J. L. (2015). A new scenario of hypothalamic

organization: Rationale of new hypotheses introduced in the updated

prosomeric model. Frontiers in Neuroanatomy, 9, 27. doi: 10.3389/

fnana.2015.00027

Putnam, N. H., Butts, T., Ferrier, D. E. K., Furlong, R. F., Hellsten, U.,

Kawashima, T., … Rokshar, D. S. (2008). The amphioxus genome and the

evolution of the chordate karyotype. Nature, 453(7198), 1064–1071. doi:

1038/nature06967


Full Text: PDF



Creative Commons License
Texts in the journal are –unless otherwise indicated– published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________