DOI: https://doi.org/10.7203/metode.11.16693

How much warmer is the Mediterranean becoming? Thirty-five years of satellite observations


Abstract


Global warming particularly affects the oceans and seas. In the Mediterranean Sea, in situ oceanographic and meteorological records, together with the most recent satellite observations, show an estimated warming of between 0.6 °C and 1 °C over the last three decades. In this article we present the results of an analysis of a 35-year series of monthly thermal images in the western basins of the Mediterranean. The data indicate an intensification in the summer season: with the summers becoming longer and more intense and the months of June and July recording the highest rates of warming, with increases of 0.6 °C/decade. 


Keywords


Mediterranean; global warming; climate change; physical geography; remote sensing

Full Text:

PDF

References


  • Belkin, I. (2009). Rapid warming of large marine ecosystems. Progress in Oceanography, 81(1–4), 207–213. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2009.04.011

  • Bergamasco, A., & Malanotte-Rizzoli, P. (2010). The circulation of the Mediterranean Sea: A historical review of experimental investigations. Advances in Oceanography and Limnology, 1(1), 11–28. https://doi.org/10.1080/19475721.2010.491656

  • Bethoux, J. P., Gentili, B., Morin, P., Nicolas, E., Pierre, C., & Ruiz-Pino, D. (1999). The Mediterranean Sea: A miniature ocean for climatic and environmental studies and a key for the climatic functioning of the North Atlantic. Progress in Oceanography, 44(1–3), 131–146. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6611(99)00023-3

  • García-Martínez, M. C., Vargas-Yáñez, M., Moya, F., Zunino, P., & Bautista, B. (2018). The effects of climate change and rivers damming in the Mediterranean Sea during the twentieth century. International Journal of Environmental Sciences & Natural Resources, 8(4), 555741. https://doi.org/10.19080/IJESNR.2018.08.555741

  • IPCC. (2013). Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the Fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press.

  • López García, M. J. (1991). La temperatura superficial del mar Balear a partir de imágenes de satélite (dissertation). University of Valencia, Spain.

  • López García, M. J. (2015). Recent warming in the Balearic Sea and Spanish Mediterranean coast. Towards an earlier and longer summer. Atmósfera, 28(3), 149–160. https://doi.org/10.20937/ATM.2015.28.03.01

  • López García, M. J. (2020). SST Comparison of AVHRR and MODIS Time Series in the Western Mediterranean Sea. Remote Sensing, 12(14), 2241. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12142241

  • López García, M. J., & Camarasa, A. M. (2011). Recent trends of SST in the Western Mediterranean basins from AVHRR Pathfinder data (1985-2007). Global Planetary Change, 78(3-4), 127–136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2011.06.001

  • Millot, C., & Taupier-Letage, I. (2005). Circulation in the Mediterranean Sea. In A. Saliot (Ed.), The Mediterranean Sea. Handbook of environmental chemistry (vol. 5K, pp. 29–66). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/b107143

  • Mohamed, B., Abdallah, A. M., El-Din, K. A., Nagy, H., & Shaltout, M. (2019). Inter-annual variability and trends of sea level and sea surface temperature in the Mediterranean Sea over the last 25 years. Pure Applied Geophysics, 176(8), 3787–3810. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-019-02223-2

  • Nykjaer, L. (2009). Mediterranean Sea surface warming 1985-2006. Climate Research, 39, 11–17. https://doi.org/10.3354/cr00794

  • Sakalli, A. (2017). Sea surface temperature change in the Mediterranean Sea under climate change: A linear model for simulation of the sea surface temperature up to 2100. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 15(1), 707–716. https://doi.org/10.15666/aeer/1501_707716

  • Salat, J., Pascual, J., Flexas, M., Chin, T. M., & Vazquez-Cuervo, J. (2019). Forty-five years of oceanographic and meteorological observations at a costal station in the NW Mediterranean: A ground truth for satellite observations. Ocean Dynamics, 69, 1067–1084. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10236-019-01285-z

  • Shaltout, M., & Omstedt, A. (2014). Recent sea surface temperature trends and future scenarios for the Mediterranean Sea. Oceanologica, 56(3), 411–443. https://doi.org/10.5697/oc.56-3.411

  • Skliris, N., Sofianos, S., Gkanasos, A., Mantziafou, A., Vervatis, V., Axaopoulos, P., & Lascaratos, A. (2012). Decadal scale variability of sea surface temperature in the Mediterranean Sea in relation to atmospheric variability. Ocean Dynamics, 62, 13–20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10236-011-0493-5

  • Trenberth, K. E., Jones, P. D., Ambenje, P., Bojariu, R., Easterling, D., Tank, A. K., Parker, D., Rahimzadeh, F., Renwick, J. A., Rusticucci, M., Soden, B., … Zhai, P. (2007). Observations: Surface and Atmospheric Climate Change. In S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, & H. L. Miller (Eds.), Climate change 2007: The physical science basis (pp. 235–336). Cambridge University Press.

  • Vargas-Yáñez, M., García, M. C., Moya, F., Tel, E., Parrilla, G., Plaza, F., Lavín, A., & García, M. J. (2010). Cambio climático en el Mediterráneo español. Temas de Oceanografía, 3 (2ª ed.). Instituto Español de Oceanografía y Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación.

  • Von Schuckmann, K., Le Traon, P. Y., Smith, N., Pascual, A., Brasseur, P., Fennel, K. & Djavidnia, S. (Eds). (2018). Copernicus marine service ocean state report. Journal of Operational Oceanography, 11(sup1), S1–S142. https://doi.org/10.1080/1755876X.2018.1489208







Creative Commons License
Texts in the journal are –unless otherwise indicated– published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________