“I faced so many barriers”: Access to support for deaf female survivors of domestic violence in the UK

Jemina Napier, Lucy Clark, Lorraine Leeson, Lianne Quigley


This article examines the potential vulnerability of deaf female British Sign Language (BSL) signers who experience domestic violence (DV) in reporting DV and accessing information and communication support. Based on online semi-structured interviews with eight deaf women in the UK, their perceptions of the factors that contribute to creating barriers in gaining adequate access and support are discussed. We present findings that concentrate around seven key barriers identified by the interviewees including: (i) access to interpreting; (ii) lack of information in BSL; (iii) lack of deaf cultural awareness; (iv) needs for on-going support; (v) deaf-specific services; (vi) training/education needs; and (vii) recognition of diversity. In considering deaf women’s reporting of DV incidences through an intersectional lens, it is clear that they experience a double, or even triple or quadruple disadvantage. We found that, despite professional interpreting services being widely available in the UK, structural barriers still exist for deaf women in gaining access to support for DV, and that barriers are created through inaccessible services, inaccessible information, and lack of awareness of the needs of deaf women in this context. These barriers can be mitigated through training and resources for sign language interpreters, police officers, and other support service providers. We conclude with suggestions for how this research can be applied to interpreting for female DV survivors in other minority communities as well as deaf communities, with suggestions for further research.


domestic violence; deaf women; barriers; communication support; sign language interpreting; intersectionality

Full Text: PDF

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7203/Just.3.27933


Admire, Amanda & Blanca Ramirez. 2021. “Violence and disability: Experiences and perceptions of victimization among deaf people.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 36 (1–2): NP1–NP25. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260517730564.

Aldridge, Jo. 2015. Participatory research: Working with vulnerable groups in research and practice. Bristol: Policy Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047279416000106.

Altıntaş, Özlem. 2020. “Being a hearing-impaired woman.” The Journal of International Social Research 13 (73): 1120–1128. https://doi.org/10.17719/jisr.11052.

Anderson, Melissa L. & Caroline M. Kobek Pezzarossi. 2012. “Is it abuse? Deaf female undergraduates’ labelling of partner violence.” Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 17 (2): 273–286. https://doi.org/10.1093/deafed/enr048.

Anderson, Melissa L. & Caroline M. Kobek Pezzarossi. 2014. “Violence against deaf women: Effect of partner hearing status.” Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 19 (3): 411–421. https://doi.org/10.1093/deafed/ent053.

Anderson, Melissa L., Irene W. Leigh & Vincent J. Samar. 2011. “Intimate partner violence against deaf women: A review.” Aggression and Violent Behaviour 16 (3): 200–206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2011.02.006.

Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta. 2017. "Center-staging language and identity research from Earthrise positions: Contextualizing performances in open spaces." In Identity revisited and reimagined: Empirical and theoretical contributions on embodied communication across time and space, edited by Sangeeta Bagga-Gupta, Aase L. Hansen & Julie Feilberg, 65–102. Cham: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-58056-2.

Barnett, Steven, Jonathan D. Klein, Robert Q. Pollard, Vincent J. Samar, Deirdre Schlehofer, Matthew Starr, Erika Sutter, Hongmei Yang & Thomas A. Pearson. 2011. “Community participatory research with deaf sign language users to identify health inequities.” American Journal of Public Health 101 (12): 2235–2238. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2011.300247.

Batterbury, Sarah, Paddy Ladd & Mike Gulliver. 2007. “Sign language peoples as indigenous minorities: Implications for research and policy.” Environment & Planning 39 (12): 2899–2915. https://doi.org/10.1068/a3.

Becker, Gaylene & Joanne K. Jauregui. 1985. “The invisible isolation of deaf women: Its effects on social awareness.” The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare 8 (2): article 4. https://doi.org/10.15453/0191-5096.1457.

Beckman, Linda J. 2014. “Training in feminist research methodology: Doing research on the margins.” Women & Therapy 37 (1–2): 164–177. https://doi.org/10.1080/02703149.2014.850347.

Branson, Jan & Don Miller. 2002. Damned for their difference: The cultural construction of deaf people as disabled. A sociological history. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Braun, Virginia & Victoria Clarke. 2006. “Using thematic analysis in psychology.” Qualitative Research in Psychology 3 (2): 77–101. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa.

Brownridge, Douglas A. 2009. Violence against women: Vulnerable populations. New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203877432.

Chambers, Guinevere. 2024. “Police interactions with the deaf and hard of hearing community: Abuse, audism, and accessibility.” Humanity & Society (online first). https://doi.org/10.1177/01605976241228472.

Cho, Sumi, Kimberle Williams Crenshaw & Leslie McCall. 2013. “Toward a field of intersectionality studies: Theory, applications, and praxis.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 38 (4): 785–810. https://doi.org/10.1086/669608.

Clark, Lucy, Ruaridh Lever-Hogg & Jemina Napier. 2023. Silent harm (documentary). 6 April 2023. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dcIKqUtlIOk.

Cooke-Hubley, Sandra & Victor Maddalena. 2011. “Access to genetic testing and genetic counselling in vulnerable populations: The d/Deaf and hard of hearing population.” Journal of Community Genetics 2 (3): 117–125. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12687-011-0047-z.

Crenshaw, Kimberlé. 1989. “Demarginalizing the intersection of race and sex: A black feminist critique of antidiscrimination doctrine, feminist theory and antiracist politics.” University of Chicago Legal Forum 1989 (1): 139–167.

Crowe, Teresa. 2017. "Breaking the silence: Empowering deaf and hard of hearing survivors of domestic violence." In Religion, disability and interpersonal violence, edited by Andy J. Johnson, J. Ruth Nelson & Emily M. Lund, 131–148. Cham: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-56901-7_8.

Edwards, Rosalind, Claire Alexander & Bogusia Temple. 2006. “Interpreting trust: Abstract and personal trust for people who need interpreters to access services.” Sociological Research Online 11 (1): 1–13. https://doi.org/10.5153/sro.1077.

Elliott Smith, Rebecca & Lawrence H. Pick. 2015. “Sexual assault experienced by deaf female undergraduates: Prevalence and characteristics.” Violence and Victims 30 (6): 948–959. https://doi.org/10.5153/sro.1077.

Emond, Alan, Matthew Ridd, Hilary Sutherland, Lorna Allsop, Andrew Alexander & Jim Kyle. 2015. “The current health of the signing Deaf community in the UK compared with the general population: A cross-sectional study.” BMJ Open 5 (1): 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006668.

Engelman, Alina & Juliana Deardorff. 2016. “Cultural competence training for law enforcement responding to domestic violence emergencies with the deaf and hard of hearing: A mixed-methods evaluation.” Health Promotion Practice 17 (2): 177–185. https://doi.org/10.1177/15248399156215.

Federici, Federico M. 2020. “‘Language barrier’ in UK newspapers 2010-2020: Figurative meaning, migration, and language needs.” Cultus13: 194–219.

Flaskerud, Jacquelyn H. & Betty J. Winslow. 1998. “Conceptualising vulnerable populations in health-related research.” Nursing Research47 (2): 69–78. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006199-199803000-00005.

Franks, Myfanwy. 2002. “Feminisms and cross-ideological feminist social research: Standpoint, situatedness and positionality — Developing cross-ideological feminist research.” Journal of International Women's Studies 3 (2): 38–50.

Friedman, Carli & Alexa L. Owen. 2017. “Defining disability: Understandings of and attitudes towards ableism and disability.” Disability Studies Quarterly 37 (1). https://doi.org/10.18061/dsq.v37i1.5061.

Fries, Sabine. 2020. Gewalterfahrungen gehörloser frauen: Risikofaktoren, ressourcen und gesundheitliche folgen. Heidelberg: Springer Nature. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-31926-7.

Gunnarsson, Lena. 2015. “Why we keep separating the ‘inseparable’: Dialecticizing intersectionality.” The European Journal of Women’s Studies 24 (2): 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1177/13505068155771.

Harding, Sandra. 1992. "Rethinking standpoint epistemology: What is strong objectivity." In Feminist epistemologies, edited by Linda Alcoff & Elizabeth Potter, 101–120. New York: Routledge.

Harris, Raychelle, Heidi M. Holmes & Donna M. Mertens. 2009. “Research ethics in sign language communities.” Sign Language Studies 9 (2): 104–131. https://doi.org/10.1353/sls.0.0011.

Irving, Lesley. 2023. The independent strategic review of funding and commissioning of violence against women and girls services. Edinburgh: Scottish Government. https://www.gov.scot/publications/violence-against-women-girls-independent-strategic-review-funding-commissioning-services-report/documents/.

Jumarali, Selima N., Nkiru Nnawulezi, Samantha Royson, Carrie Lippy, Ashley N. Rivera & Ty Toopet. 2021. “Participatory research engagement of vulnerable populations: Employing survivor-centered, trauma-informed approaches.” Journal of Participatory Research Methods 2 (2). https://doi.org/10.35844/001c.24414.

Kusters, Annelies. 2019. “Boarding Mumbai trains: The mutual shaping of intersectionality and mobility.” Mobilities 14 (6): 841–858. https://doi.org/10.1080/17450101.2019.1622850.

Kusters, Annelies, Maartje De Meulder & Dai O’Brien, eds. 2017. Innovations in deaf studies: The role of deaf scholars. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ladd, Paddy. 2003. Understanding Deaf culture. In search of Deafhood. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853595479.

Lane, Harlan L. 2002. “Do deaf people have a disability?” Sign Language Studies 2 (4): 356–379. https://doi.org/10.1353/sls.2002.0019.

Lane, Harlan L., Robert Hoffmeister & Ben Bahan. 1996. A journey into the Deaf world. Washington, DC: Dawn Sign Press.

Leeson, Lorraine, Jemina Napier, Robert Skinner, Teresa Lynch, Lucia Venturi & Haaris Sheikh. 2017. "Conducting research with deaf sign language users." In Doing research in applied linguistics: Realities, dilemmas, and solutions, edited by Jim McKinley & Heath Rose, 134–145. London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315389608-13.

Leigh, Irene W. 2020. "Deaf identities: A maturing framework." In Deaf identities: Exploring new frontiers, edited by Irene W. Leigh & Catherine A. O’Brien, 1–8. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190887599.001.0001.

Lemon, Nancy K. D. 2006. “Access to justice: Can domestic violence courts better address the needs of non-English speaking victims of domestic violence?” Berkley Journal of Gender, Law & Justice 21: 38–48. https://doi.org/10.15779/Z38901ZF4F.

Listman, Jennifer & Kimberly Kurz. 2020. “Lived experience: Deaf professionals' stories of resilience and risks.” Journal of Deaf Studies & Deaf Education 25 (2): 239–249. https://doi.org/10.1093/deafed/enz045.

Listman, Jennifer, Kelly Rogers & Peter Hauser. 2011. "Community cultural wealth and deaf adolescents’ resilience." In Resilience in deaf children: Adaptation through emerging adulthood, edited by Debra Zand & Katherine Piece, 279–297. New York: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-7796-0.

Loach, Barbara L. 2019. “A time to speak and a time to keep silent: Professional ethics, conscience, and the medical interpreter.” Ethics, Medicine and Public Health 11: 52–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jemep.2019.100420.

Lumsden, Karen & Alex Black. 2022. “‘Sorry, I'm dead, it's too late now’: barriers faced by D/deaf citizens when accessing police services.” Disability & Society 37 (3): 476–495. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2020.1829555.

Mastrocinque, Jeanna M., Catherine Cerulli, Denise Thew, Nancy P. Chin & Robert Q. Pollard. 2022. “Understanding intimate partner violence perpetration involving the deaf population.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 37 (1-2): NP696–NP718. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260520916265.

Mastrocinque, Jeanna M., Denise Thew, Catherine Cerulli, Christina Raimondi, Robert Q. Pollard, Jr. & Nancy P. Chin. 2017. “Deaf victims‘ experiences with intimate partner violence: The need for integration and innovation.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 32 (24): 3753–3777. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260515602896.

Mays, Jennifer. 2006. “Feminist disability theory: Domestic violence against women with a disability.” Disability and Society 21 (2): 147–158. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687590500498077.

McDermid, Campbell. 2010. “Culture brokers, advocates, or conduits: Pedagogical considerations for deaf interpreter education.” International Journal of Interpreter Education 2 (1): article 8.

McQuiller Williams, LaVerne & Judy L. Porter. 2015. “The relationship between child maltreatment and partner violence victimization and perpetration among college students: Focus on auditory status and gender.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 30 (13): 2304–2325. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260514552443.

De Meulder, Maartje. 2014. "The UNCRPD and Sign Language Peoples." In UNCRPD implementation: A Deaf perspective. Article 29: Participation in political and public life, edited by Annika Pabsch, 12–28. Brussels: European Union of the Deaf.

De Meulder, Maartje. 2015. “The legal recognition of sign languages.” Sign Language Studies 15 (4): 498–506. https://doi.org/10.1353/sls.2015.0018.

De Meulder, Maartje & Joseph J. Murray. 2017. “Buttering their bread on both sides? The recognition of sign languages and the aspirations of deaf communities.” Language Problems & Language Planning 41 (2): 136–158. https://doi.org/10.1075/lplp.41.2.04dem.

De Meulder, Maartje, Joseph J. Murray & Rachel Locker McKee, eds. 2019. The legal recognition of sign languages: Advocacy and outcomes around the world. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. https://doi.org/10.21832/DEMEUL4009.

Miner, Cami J. 2021. “Finding their fit: An exploratory study of interpreters’ perceptions of their membership in the deaf community.” Journal of Interpretation 29 (1): article 4.

Mousley, Victoria L. & Stephenie R. Chaudoir. 2018. “Deaf stigma: Links between stigma and well-being among deaf emerging adults.” Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 23 (4): 341–350. https://doi.org/10.1093/deafed/eny018.

Murray, Joseph J. 2015. “Linguistic human rights discourse in deaf community activism.” Sign Language Studies 15 (4): 379–410. https://doi.org/10.1353/sls.2015.0012.

Murray, Joseph J., Maartje De Meulder & Delphine le Maire. 2018. “An education in sign language as a human right? The sensory exception in the legislative history and ongoing interpretation of Article 24 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.” Human Rights Quarterly 40 (1): 37–60. https://doi.org/10.1353/hrq.2018.0001.

Mweri, Jefwa. 2017. "The deaf as a vulnerable group: Are interpreters equipped in advocating for the human rights of deaf individuals and their interpreters." In Human rights: Where do interpreters fit in? Proceedings of the World Association of Sign Language Interpreters Conference 2015, edited by Isabelle Heyerick & Suzanne Ehrlich, 43–60. Geneva: World Association of Sign Language Interpreters.

Napier, Jemima, Lucy Clark & Abigail Gorman. 2023. "JUSTISIGNS 2: Best practices for BSL interpreters and deaf Independent Domestic Violence Advisors working together." Newsli: Magazine of the Association of Sign Language Interpreters of the UK, 27–31.

Napier, Jemima, Robert Skinner, Robert Adam, Christopher Stone, Sandra Pratt & Chijioke Obasi. 2021. A demographic snapshot of the profession: The 2021 Census of sign language translators & interpreters in the UK. Edinburgh: Heriot-Watt University & Association of Sign Language Interpreters UK. https://asli.org.uk/census-report-2021/.

Napier, Jemima, Robert Skinner, Alys Young & Rosemary Oram. 2017. “Mediating identities: Sign language interpreter perceptions on trust and representation.” Journal of Applied Linguistics & Professional Practice 14 (1): 75–95. https://doi.org/10.1558/jalpp.36014.

Napier, Jemina. 2024. “Do deaf women feel safe on campus? A qualitative case study of one UK university.” Humanity & Society (online first). https://doi.org/10.1177/01605976241232149.

Napier, Jemina, Lucy Clark, Lorraine Leeson & Lianne Quigley. 2023. “SILENT HARM: Empowering deaf women surviving domestic violence post-Covid: An inclusive approach to resilience and recovery in rural areas.” Edinburgh (award reference no. 2879). Royal Society of Edinburgh. https://lifeinlincs.org/?p=3173.

Napier, Jemina, Lorraine Leeson, Maribel Del Pozo Triviño, David Casado-Neira, Haaris Sheikh, Lucy Clark Gill Harold, Lianne Quigley, et al. 2023. Silent harm: A review of support for survivors of gender-based violence. DS/SLSCS Monograph Series 6.Dublin: Trinity College Dublin.

Napier, Jemina, Rosemary Oram, Alys Young & Robert Skinner. 2019. “‘When I speak people look at me’: British deaf signers’ use of bimodal translanguaging strategies and the representation of identities.” Translation and Translanguaging in Multilingual Contexts 5 (2): 95–120. https://doi.org/10.1075/ttmc.00027.nap.

National Registers of Communication Professionals working with Deaf and Deafblind People (NRCPD). 2024. Code of Conduct for Registrants and Regulated Trainees. National Registers for Communication Professionals with Deaf and Deafblind People.https://www.nrcpd.org.uk/code-of-conduct.

O'Brien, Dai, Gabrielle Hodge, Sannah Gulamani, Katherine Rowley, Robert Adam, Steven Emery & John Walker. 2023. “Deaf academics' perceptions of 'trust' in relationships with signed language interpreters.” Translation & Interpreting 15 (2): 25–42. https://doi.org/10.12807/ti.115202.2023.a02.

Obinna, Jennifer, Sarah Krueger, Constance Osterbaan, Jane Sadusky & Wendy DaVore. 2005. Understanding the needs of the victims of sexual assault in the deaf community: A needs assessment and audit. Minneapolis, MN: Council on Crime and Justice. https://www.ojp.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/212867.pdf. https://doi.org/10.1037/e536322006-001.

Opsahl, Noëlle & Lawrence H. Pick. 2017. “Understanding the sexual assault disclosure experiences of deaf women.” JADARA 51 (3): 44–67.

Padden, Carol A. 2005. “Talking culture: Deaf people and disability studies.” PMLA: Publications of the Modern Language Association of America 120 (2): 508–513. https://doi.org/10.1632/S003081290016780X.

Paul, Peter V. 2021. “Insiders and outsiders: The Yin-Yang approach to understanding.” American Annals of the Deaf 166 (3): 257–261. https://doi.org/10.1353/aad.2021.0029.

Porter, Judy & LaVerne McQuiller Williams. 2011. “Intimate violence among underrepresented groups on a college campus.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 26 (16): 3210–3224. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260510393011.

del Pozo Triviño, Maribel. 2017. "The right of gender violence victims and survivors to quality translation and interpreting according to legislation. The SOS-VICS contribution." In Legal translation and court interpreting: Ethical values, quality, competence training, edited by Annikki Liimatainen, Arja Nurmi, Marja Kivilehto, Lena Salmi, Anu Viljanmaa & Melissa Wallace, 25–48. Berlin: Frank & Timme.

Race, Leanne & Todd E. Hogue. 2018. “‘You have the right to remain silent’: Current provisions for D/deaf people within regional police forces in England and Wales.” The Police Journal 91 (1): 64–88. https://doi.org/10.1177/0032258X16689689.

Robinson, Octavian E. & Jonathan Henner. 2018. “Authentic voices, authentic encounters: Cripping the university through American Sign Language.” Disability Studies Quarterly 38 (4). https://doi.org/10.18061/dsq.v38i4.6111.

Rogers, Katherine, Aleix Rowlandson, James Harkness, Gemma Shields & Alys Young. 2024. “Health outcomes in deaf signing populations: A systematic review.” medRxiv (pre-print). https://doi.org/10.1101/2024.01.26.24301843.

Safe Lives. 2017. Disabled survivors too: Disabled people and domestic abuse. Spotlight report. Bristol: Safe Lives. https://safelives.org.uk/sites/default/files/resources/Disabled_Survivors_Too_Report.pdf.

Schröttle, Monika & Sandra Glammeier. 2013. “Intimate partner violence against disabled women as part of widespread victimization and discrimination.” International Journal of Conflict and Violence 7 (2): 232–248.

Schügerl, Vanessa. 2023. "Erfahrungen von sexueller Gewalt an Tauben Frauen und die Bedeutung innerhalb und außerhalb der Deaf Community." Unpublished MA thesis, Universität Graz.

Shavers, Clarissa A., Alytia A. Levendosky, Stacie M. Dubay, Alcarna Basu & Johanna Jenei. 2005. “Domestic violence research: Methodological issues related to a community-based intervention with a vulnerable population.” Journal of Applied Biobehavioural Research 10 (1): 27–38. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9861.2005.tb00002.x.

Simcock, Peter. 2017. “One of society's most vulnerable groups? A systematically conducted literature review exploring the vulnerability of deafblind people.” Health and Social Care in the Community 25 (3): 813–839. https://doi.org/10.1111/hsc.12317.

Skinner, Robert & Jemina Napier. 2022. “‘Help is on the way’: (In)accessible policing in the UK through sign language interpreting.” Translation and Interpreting Studies 17 (3): 455–477. https://doi.org/10.1075/tis.21040.ski.

Stone, Christopher. 2013. "The UNCRPD and 'professional' sign language interpreter provision." In Interpreting in a changing landscape, edited by Christina Schäffner, Krzysztof Kredens & Yvonne Fowler, 83–100. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/btl.109.

Tipton, Rebecca. 2017. “You are foreign, you are nothing in this country’: Managing risk in interpreter-mediated police interviews with victims of domestic abuse.” Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses 75: 119–138.

Tipton, Rebecca. 2018. “Translating/ed selves and voices.” Translation and Interpreting Studies 13 (2): 163–184. https://doi.org/10.1075/tis.00010.tip.

Tipton, Rebecca. 2023. "Vulnerable encounters: Investigating vulnerability in interpreter-mediated services for victim-survivors of domestic violence and abuse." In The Routledge handbook of public service interpreting, edited by Laura Gavioli & Cecilia Wadensjö, 175–191. London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429298202-14.

Turner, Graham H. 2020. "How many people use British Sign Language? Scotland’s 2011 Census and the demographic politics of disability and linguistic identity." In Language on the move across domains and communities: Selected papers from the 12th Triennial Forum for Research on the Languages of Scotland and Ulster, Glasgow 2018, edited by Joanna Kopaczyk & Robert McColl Millar, 37–70. Aberdeen: FRLSU. https://www.abdn.ac.uk/sll/documents/Ch3-Turner.pdf.

United Nations. 1993. Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women. General Assembly resolution A/RES/48/104 of 20 December 1993, 48th session. New York: United Nations. https://undocs.org/A/RES/48/104.

United Nations. 2007. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and Optional Protocol. General Assembly Resolution A/RES/61/106 of 24 January 2007, 62nd session. New York: United Nations. https://undocs.org/A/RES/61/106.

Westmarland, Nicole & Hannah Bows. 2018. Researching gender, violence and abuse: Theory, methods, action. London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315630618.

Woodlin, Sarah & Sonali Shah. 2014. “Access to specialized victim support services for women with disabilities who have experienced violence: Comparative research report: Austria, Germany, Iceland and United Kingdom.” (Unpublished research report). https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.11525.55525.


  • There are currently no refbacks.