The environmental watchdogs: Wildlife as sentinels of antimicrobial resistance pollution in the environment in Catalonia

Laila Darwich, Rafael A. Molina-López


The increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in both humans and livestock is attributed largely to the overuse and misuse of antimicrobials. The alarming emergence of this resistance in human and veterinary medicine has activated awareness for monitoring the levels of AMR pollution in the environment. In this report, the emergence of genes conferring resistance to human last-resort antibiotics is described in a wide diversity of wild animals. It suggests that wildlife can be good sentinels of AMR environmental pollution, especially in highly populated areas. Moreover, wild animals can also contribute in the dissemination of AMR bacteria and genes in the environment and represent a zoonotic risk for the population who are exposed to them.


antimicrobial resistance; beta-lactamases resistance genes; Catalonia; colistin-resistance genes; wildlife

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