An obstacle race: Four Pioneers in the field of psychology

Annette Mülberger


A scientific career is often like an obstacle course, but for women there are additional problems and specific mechanisms of exclusion. This article shows us the strategies used to overcome some such hurdles by reviewing the biographies of four psychologists who endeavoured to receive academic training, between 1890 and 1940, and managed to make a personal contribution to psychological science.


psychologists; history; Mary W. Calkins; Anna Freud; Beatrice Edgell; Mercedes Rodrigo

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