DOI: https://doi.org/10.7203/metode.12.18398

From crayfish to humans: An evolutionary perspective of addiction


Abstract


Addiction is a complex disease whose manifestation is unique to each individual patient. Despite this, our knowledge suggests that many of the consequences of using drugs of abuse are due to alterations in the brain, which would be similar from one individual to another. Specifically, abuse drugs act on the brain’s reward system to trigger behavioural effects. In this paper, we will unravel the functions and phylogenetic roots of this system and then explain how drugs of abuse can affect the functioning of the brain. Addiction research and treatment requires a biopsychosocial approach and hence, being aware of the phylogenetic side of this problem can help to build a holistic view of the disease.


Keywords


addiction; evolution; brain reward system; drugs of abuse; phylogenetic perspective

References


Datta, U., Van Staaden, M., & Huber, R. (2018). Crayfish self-administer amphetamine in a spatially contingent task. Frontiers in Physiology, 9, 433. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.00433

Durrant, R., Adamson, S., Todd, F., & Sellman, D. (2009). Drug use and addiction: Evolutionary perspective. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 43(11), 1049–1056. https://doi.org/10.3109/00048670903270449

Goldstein, R. Z., & Volkow, N. D. (2011). Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex in addiction: Neuroimaging findings and clinical implications. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 12(11), 652–669. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn3119

Hagen, E. H., Roulette, C. J., & Sullivan, R. J. (2013). Explaining human recreational use of ‘pesticides’: The neurotoxin regulation model of substance use vs. the hijack model and implications for age and sex differences in drug consumption. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 4, 142. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00142

Nathaniel, T. I., Panksepp, J., & Huber, R. (2010). Effects of a single and repeated morphine treatment on conditioned and unconditioned behavioral sensitization in crayfish. Behavioural Brain Research, 207(2), 310–320. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2009.10.010

National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2008). Drugs, brain, and behavior: The science of addiction. NIDA, National Institute of Health.

Nesse, R. M., & Berridge, K. C. (1997). Psychoactive drug use in evolutionary perspective. Science, 278(5335), 63–66. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.278.5335.63

Nutt, D. J., Lingford-Hughes, A., Erritzoe, D., & Stokes, P. R. (2015). The dopamine theory of addiction: 40 years of highs and lows. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 16(5), 305–312. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn3939

Robinson, M. J. F., Fischer, A. M., Ahuja, A., Lesser, E. N., & Maniates, H. (2015). Roles of “wanting” and “liking” in motivating behavior: Gambling, food, and drug addictions. In E. Simpson, & P. Balsam (Eds.), Behavioral neuroscience of motivation. Current topics in behavioral neurosciences, vol. 27 (pp. 105–136). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/7854_2015_387

Robinson, T. E., & Berridge, K. C. (1993). The neural basis of drug craving: An incentive-sensitization theory of addiction. Brain Research Reviews, 18(3), 247–291. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-0173(93)90013-P

Van Staaden, M. J., Hall, F. S., & Huber, R. (2018). The deep evolutionary roots of ‘addiction’. Journal of Mental Health and Clinical Psychology, 2(3), 8–13. https://doi.org/10.29245/2578-2959/2018/3.1135

Wakefield, J. C. (2020). Addiction from the harmful dysfunction perspective: How there can be a mental disorder in a normal brain. Behavioural Brain Research, 389, 112665. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2020.112665

Wightman, R. M., & Robinson, D. L. (2002). Transient changes in mesolimbic dopamine and their association with ‘reward’. Journal of Neurochemistry, 82(4), 721–735. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1471-4159.2002.01005.x

Wink, M. (2018). Plant secondary metabolites modulate insect behavior-steps toward addiction? Frontiers in Physiology, 9, 364. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.00364

Wise, R. A. (2002). Brain reward circuitry: Insights from unsensed incentives. Neuron, 36(2), 229–240. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0896-6273(02)00965-0







Creative Commons License
Texts in the journal are –unless otherwise indicated– published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________