DOI: https://doi.org/10.7203/metode.9.12639

The human-computer connection: An overview of brain-computer interfaces


Abstract


This article introduces the field of brain-computer interfaces (BCI), which allows the control of devices without the generation of any active motor output but directly from the decoding of the user’s brain signals. Here we review the current state of the art in the BCI field, discussing the main components of such an interface and illustrating ongoing research questions and prototypes for controlling a large variety of devices, from virtual keyboards for communication to robotics systems to replace lost motor functions and even clinical interventions for motor rehabilitation after a stroke. The article concludes with some insights into the future of BCI.

Keywords


brain-computer interfaces; brain signal processing; machine learning; robotics; rehabilitation

References


  1. Biasiucci, A., Leeb, R., Iturrate, I., Perdikis, S., Al-Khodairy, A., Corbet, T. A., … Millán, J. d. R. (2018). Brain-actuated functional electrical stimulation elicits lasting arm motor recovery after stroke. Nature Communications, 9, 2421. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-04673-z 

  2. Birbaumer, N., Ghanayim, N., Hinterberger, T., Iversen, I., Kotchoubey, B., Kübler, A., … Flor, H. (1999). A spelling device for the paralysed. Nature, 398(6725), 297–298. doi: 10.1038/18581

  3. Carslon, T., & Millán, J. d. R. (2013). Brain-controlled wheelchairs: A robotic architecture. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine, 20(1), 65–73. doi: 10.1109/MRA.2012.2229936

  4. Carmena, J. M. (2013). Advances in neuroprosthetic learning and control. PLOS Biology, 11(5), e1001561. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001561

  5. Chavarriaga, R., Sobolewski, A., & Millán, J. d. R. (2014). Errare machinale est: The use of error-related potentials in brain-machine interfaces. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 8, 208. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2014.00208 

  6. Chavarriaga, R., Ušćumlić, M., Zhang, H., Khaliliardali, Z., Aydarkhanov, R., Saeedi, S., … Millán, J. d. R. (2018). Decoding neural correlates of cognitive states to enhance driving experience. IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computational Intelligence, 2(4), 288–297. doi: 10.1109/TETCI.2018.2848289

  7. Collinger, J. L., Wodlinger, B., Downey, J. E., Wang, W., Tyler-Kabara, E. C., Weber, D. J., … Schwartz, A. B. (2013). High-performance neuroprosthetic control by an individual with tetraplegia. Lancet, 381, 557–564. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61816-9

  8. Hochberg, L. R., Bacher, D., Jarosiewicz, B., Masse N. Y., Simeral, J. D., Vogel, J., & Donoghue, J. P. (2012). Reach and grasp by people with tetraplegia using a neurally controlled robotic arm. Nature, 485, 372–375. doi: 10.1038/nature11076

  9. Leeb, R., Tonin, L., Rohm, M., Desideri, L., Carlson, T., & Millán, J. d. R. (2015). Towards independence: A BCI telepresence robot for people with severe motor disabilities. Proceedings of the IEEE, 103(6), 969–982. doi: 10.1109/JPROC.2015.2419736

  10. Millán, J. d. R., & Carmena, J. M. (2010). Invasive or noninvasive: Understanding brain-machine interface technology. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, 29(1), 16–22. doi: 10.1109/MEMB.2009.935475

  11. Perdikis, S., Tonin, L., Saeedi, S., Schneider, C., & Millán, J. d. R. (2018). The Cybathlon BCI race: Successful longitudinal mutual learning with two tetraplegic users. PLOS Biology, 16(25), e2003787. doi: 10.1371/
    journal.pbio.2003787

  12. Raspopovic, S., Capogrosso, M., Petrini, F. M., Bonizzato, M., Rigosa, J., Di Pino, G., … Micera, S. (2014). Restoring natural sensory feedback in real-time bidirectional hand prostheses. Science Translational Medicine, 6(222), 222ra19. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3006820

  13. Ron-Angevin, R., Velasco-Álvarez, F., Fernández-Rodríguez, A., Díaz-Estrella, A., Blanca-Mena, M. J., & Vizcaíno-Martín, F. J. (2017). Brain-computer interface application: Auditory serial interface to control a two-class motor-imagery-based wheelchair. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 14(1), 49. doi: 10.1186/s12984-017-0261-y

  14. Sellers, E. W., Ryan, D. B., & Hauser, C. K. (2014). Noninvasive brain-computer interface enables communication after brainstem stroke. Science Translational Medicine, 6(257), 257re7. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3007801

  15. Vansteensel, M. J., Pels, E. G. M., Bleichner, M. G., Branco, M. P., Denison, T., Freudenburg, Z. V., … Ramsey, N. F. (2016). Fully implanted brain-computer interface in a locked-in patient with ALS. New England Journal of Medicine, 375, 2060–2066. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1608085 







Creative Commons License
Texts in the journal are –unless otherwise indicated– published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________