The human-computer connection: An overview of brain-computer interfaces

José del R. Millán


This article introduces the field of brain-computer interfaces (BCI), which allows the control of devices without the generation of any active motor output but directly from the decoding of the user’s brain signals. Here we review the current state of the art in the BCI field, discussing the main components of such an interface and illustrating ongoing research questions and prototypes for controlling a large variety of devices, from virtual keyboards for communication to robotics systems to replace lost motor functions and even clinical interventions for motor rehabilitation after a stroke. The article concludes with some insights into the future of BCI.


brain-computer interfaces; brain signal processing; machine learning; robotics; rehabilitation

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