DOI: https://doi.org/10.7203/metode.9.11186

Beyond counting species: A new way to look at biodiversity


Abstract


In modern ecology, the traditional diversity indexes (usually of richness, abundance, and species evenness) have been highly revealing and useful for monitoring community and ecosystem processes. However, around two decades ago, a pioneering research team noticed that these indexes did not completely resolve their open questions. Thus, they suggested changing the way biodiversity was measured. At its base, this new methodology considers the distance between species (in phylogenetic or functional terms) before subsequently applying the appropriate biodiversity indexes. Including phylogenetic and functional elements in the evaluation of diversity allows us to approach the concept of biodiversity in a more comprehensive way. 


Keywords


classical diversity indexes; functional diversity; phylogenetic diversity; functional traits; genetic distances

References


  1. Carmona, C. P., De Bello, F., Mason, N. W. H., & Lepš, J. (2016). Traits without borders: Integrating functional diversity across scales. Trends in Ecology & Evolution31(5), 382–394. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2016.02.003

  2. Excoffier, L. (2008). Analysis of population subdivision. In D. J. Balding, M. Bishop, & C. Cannings (Eds.), Handbook of statistical genetics (pp. 980–1020). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. doi: 10.1002/9780470061619.ch29

  3. Excoffier, L., Smouse, P. E., & Quattro, J. M. (1992). Analysis of molecular variance inferred from metric distances among DNA haplotypes: Application to human mitochondrial DNA restriction data. Genetics, 131(2), 479–491.  

  4. Faith, D. P. (1992). Conservation evaluation and phylogenetic diversity. Biological Conservation, 61(1), 1–10. doi: 10.1016/0006-3207(92)91201-3

  5. Glowka, L., Burhenne-Guilmin, F., Synge, H., McNeely, J. A., & Gündling, L. (1994). A guide to the convention on biological diversity (N.º 333.95 G946). Gland/Cambdrige/Bonn: IUCN and Environmental Law Centre IUCN.

  6. González, M. T., & Poulin, R. (2005). Nested patterns in parasite component communities of a marine fish along its latitudinal range on the Pacific coast of South America. Parasitology131(4), 569–577. doi: 10.1017/S0031182005007900 

  7. Pavoine, S., & Bonsall, M. B. (2011). Measuring biodiversity to explain community assembly: A unified approach. Biological Reviews86(4), 792–812. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-185X.2010.00171.x

  8. Petchey, O. L., & Gaston, K. J. (2002). Functional diversity (FD), species richness and community composition. Ecology Letters5(3), 402–411. doi: 10.1046/j.1461-0248.2002.00339.x

  9. Poulin, R., & Morand, S. (2000). The diversity of parasites. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 75(3), 277–293. doi: 10.1086/393500

  10. Shi, M., Lin, X. D., Tian, J. H., Chen, L. J., Chen, X., Li, C. X., ... Zhang, Y.-Z. (2016). Redefining the invertebrate RNA virosphere. Nature, 540(7634), 539–543. doi: 10.1038/nature20167

  11. Whittaker, R. H. (1960). Vegetation of the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon and California. Ecological Monographs, 30(3), 279–338. doi: 10.2307/1943563







Creative Commons License
Texts in the journal are –unless otherwise indicated– published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________