Information Management Tools for the Development of Self-Regulated Learning Skills in Pre-service Teacher Education


This article presents a didactic strategy aimed at developing student teachers’ personal learning environments (PLEs) with a self-regulated learning (SRL) approach. The strategy is framed in the Dabbagh and Kitsantas (2012) model, which relates Zimmerman’ SRL cycle (forethought, performance, self-reflection) to the three levels of social media usage (personal information management, social interaction and collaboration, and information aggregation and management). A learning scenario was implemented to facilitate SRL skills through information management. The participants were 241 students of Education at the University of Balearic Islands (Spain) and data was collected through a questionnaire designed to explore tool usage and their perceptions of the effectiveness of those tools for information management tasks. Data analysis allows the observation of some patterns in the usage of information management tools in the diverse learning scenarios. In the conclusions challenges such as resistance and traditional assessment focus are identified; affordances for transferability of the acquired skills to other contexts are highlighted and further educational implementation and research are suggested. With this work, a model applicable to other contexts is provided, and a didactic strategy for the management of information based on the PLE and the SRL is presented.


self-regulated learning (SRL), personal learning environment (PLE), higher education, pre-service teacher education, didactic strategy, ICT tools.


  1. Aguaded, I.; López Meneses, E., & Alonso, L. (2010). Formación del profesorado y software social. Estudios sobre Educación, 18, 97-114. Retrieved from

  2. Alvi, E., Iqbal, Z., Masood, F., & Batool, T. (2016). A qualitative account of the nature and use of self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies employed by university students. Australian Journal of Teacher Education,41(8), 40-59.

  3. Buchem, I. (2012). Psychological Ownership and Personal Learning Environments. Do possession and control really matter? Proceedings of the PLE Conference 2012, Aveiro, Portugal. Retrieved 1 March 2014 from 

  4. Castañeda, L., & Adell, J. (2013). La anatomía de los PLEs. En L. Castañeda & J. Adell (Eds.), Entornos Personales de Aprendizaje: Claves para el ecosistema educativo en red (pp. 11-27). Alcoy: Marfil. Retrieved from

  5. Cebrià, M.A., Mora, E.R. & Igual,C. (2009). Use of ICT in the Autonomous Learning Process: A Case Study in Cardiocirculatory Physiotherapy. @tic revista d'innovació educativa, 3, 62-66.

  6. Cengiz, C. (2015). The development of TPACK, Technology Integrated Self-Efficacy and Instructional Technology Outcome Expectations of pre-service physical education teachers. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 43(5), 411-422.

  7. Chaves, E., Trujillo, J. M., & López, J. A. (2015). Autorregulación del Aprendizaje en Entornos Personales de Aprendizaje en el Grado de Educación Primaria de la Universidad de Granada, España. Formación Universitaria, 8(4), 63–76.

  8. Dabbagh, N., & Kitsantas, A. (2004). Supporting Self-regulation in student-centered web-based learning environments. International Journal on e-Learning, 3(1), 40–47. Retrieved from

  9. Dabbagh, N., & Kitsantas, A. (2012). Personal Learning Environments, social media, and self regulated learning: A natural formula for connecting formal and informal learning. The Internet and Higher Education,15(1), 3–8.

  10. Dabbagh, N., & Kitsantas, A. (2013). The role of social media in self-regulated learning. International Journal of Web Based Communities, 9(2), 256-273.

  11. de Benito, B., & Salinas, J. M. (2016). La Investigación Basada en Diseño en Tecnología Educativa. Revista Interuniversitaria de Investigación en Tecnología Educativa, 0(0), 1–16.

  12. de la Fuente, J., López-García, M., Mariano-Vera, M., Martínez-Vicente, J., & Zapata, L. (2017). Personal Self-Regulation, Learning Approaches, Resilience and Test Anxiety in Psychology Students. Estudios sobre Educación, 32, 9-26.

  13. García-Peñalvo, F.J., Johnson, M., Ribeiro, G., Minovic, M., & Conde-González, M.A. (2013). Informal learning recognition through a cloud ecosystem. Future Generation Computer Systems, 32, 282-294.

  14. Henri, F., Charlier, B., & Limpens, F. (2009). Understanding and Supporting the Creation of More Effective PLE. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Resources Management (CONF-IRM) 2009, 21st - 23th May 2009, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Retrieved from

  15. Johnson, M., & Liber, L. (2008). The Personal Learning Environment and the human condition: from theory to teaching practice. Interactive Learning Environments,16(1), 3-15.

  16. Kitsantas, A. (2013). Fostering college students’ self-regulated learning with learning technologies. Hellenic Journal of Psychology, 10, 235-252. Retrieved from:

  17. Koivuniemi, M., Panadero, E., Malmberg, J., &  Järvelä, S. (2017). Higher education students’ learning challenges and regulatory skills in different learning situations/Desafíos de aprendizaje y habilidades de regulación en distintas situaciones de aprendizaje en estudiantes de educación superior. Infancia y Aprendizaje,4(1), 19-55.

  18. Kramarski, B., & Michalsky, T. (2010). Preparing preservice teachers for self-regulated learning in the context of technological pedagogical content knowledge. Learning and Instruction,20(5), 434–447.

  19. Kravcik, M., & Klamma, R. (2012), Supporting self-regulation by Personal Learning Environments. In I. Aedo, R.-M. Bottino, N.-S. Chen, C. Giovannella, D. G. Sampson & Kinshuk (Eds.), Proceedings of 12th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (pp. 710-711). Rome: IEEE Computer Society. Retrieved from

  20. Kroop, S., Berthold, M., Nussbaumer, A., & Albert, D. (2012). Supporting Self-Regulated Learning in Personalised Learning Environments. In 1st International Workshop on Cloud Education Environments (WCLOUD 2012), 15th -16th November 2012, Antigua, Guatemala. Retrieved from

  21. Lin, X.-F., Liang, J.-C., Tsai, C.-C., & Hu, Q. (2018). The moderating role of self-regulated learning in job characteristics and attitudes towards web-based continuing learning in the airlines workplace. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 34(1), 102-115.

  22. Llorente, M. (2012). e-Learning 2.0: from technology to methodology. @tic revista d’innovació educativa, 9, 79-86.

  23. Llorente Cejudo, M. C. (2013). Aprendizaje autorregulado y PLE. EDMETIC, 2(1), 58-75.

  24. Lombaerts, K., De Backer, F., Engels, N., Van Braak, J., & Athanasou, J. (2009) Development of the self-regulated learning teacher belief scale’. EuropeanJournal of Psychology of Education, 24(1), 79–96.

  25. Marín, V. I., Negre F., & Pérez Garcias A. (2014). Entornos y redes personales de aprendizaje (PLE-PLN) para el aprendizaje colaborativo [Construction of the Foundations of the PLE and PLN for Collaborative Learning]. Comunicar, 42.

  26. McLoughlin, C., & Lee, M. J. W. (2010). Personalised and Self Regulated Learning in the Web 2.0 Era: International Exemplars of Innovative Pedagogy Using Social Software. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 26(1), 28–43.

  27. Mikroyannidis, A., Connolly, T., Law, E.L-C., Schmitz, H-C., Vieritz, H., Nussbaumer, A., Berthold, M., Ullrich, C., & Dhir, A. (2014). Self-regulated Learning in Formal Education: Perceptions, Challenges and Opportunities.Int. J. Technology Enhanced Learning, 6(2), 145–163.

  28. Moos, D. C., & Ringdal, A. (2012). Self-Regulated Learning in the Classroom: A Literature Review on the Teacher’s Role. Education Research International, Article ID 423284.

  29. Nussbaumer, A., Dahn, I., Kroop, S., Mikroyannidis, A., & Albert, D. (2015). Supporting Self-Regulated Learning. In S. Kroop et al. (eds.), Responsive Open Learning Environments(pp. 17-48).

  30. Nussbaumer, A., Sheffel, M., Niemann, K., Kravcik, M., & Albert, D. (2012). Detecting and reflecting learning activities in Personal Learning Environments. Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Awareness and Reflection in Technology-Enhanced Learning. Saarbrucken, Germany. Retrieved from

  31. Plomp, T. (2013). Educational Design Research: An Introduction. In T. Plomp & N. Nieveen (Eds.) Educational Design Research. Part A: An Introduction pp. 10-51. Retrieved from

  32. Puustinen, M., & Pulkkinen, L. (2001). Models of Self-Regulated Learning: A Review. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 45(3), 269-286.

  33. Rahimi, E., van den Berg, J., & Veen, W. (2015). A Learning Model for Enhancing the Student’s Control in Educational Process Using Web 2.0 Personal Learning Environments. British Journal of Educational Technology,46(4), 780-792.

  34. Salinas, J. (2012). La investigación ante los desafíos de los escenarios de aprendizaje futuros. Red,32. Retrieved from 

  35. Salinas, J. (2013). Enseñanza flexible y aprendizaje abierto, fundamentos clave de los PLEs. En L. Castañeda y J. Adell (Eds.), Entornos Personales de Aprendizaje: Claves para el ecosistema educativo en red, 53-70. Alcoy: Marfil.

  36. Sang, G., Tondeur, J.,Chai, C. S., & Dong, Y. (2016). Validation and Profile of Chinese Pre-service Teachers’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Scale. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 49(1), 49-65.

  37. Tur, G, Marín, V.I., Moreno, J., Gallardo, A., & Urbina, S. (2016). From Diagrams to Self-regulated Learning: Student Teachers’ Reflections on the Construction of their PLE. Educational Media International,53(2), 139-152.

  38. Tur, G., & Urbina, S. (2016). Collaboration in ePortfolios with Web 2.0 tools in initial teacher training / La colaboración en eportafolios con herramientas de la Web 2.0. en la formación docente inicial. Cultura y Educación, 28(3).

  39. Türker, M. A., & Zingel, S. (2008). Formative interfaces for scaffolding self-regulated learning in PLEs. eLearning Papers, 9. Retrieved from

  40. van Laer, S., & Elen, J. (2017). In search of attributes that support self-regulation in blended learning environments. Education and Information Technologies, 22(4), 1395-1454.

  41. Zimmerman, B. J. (1990). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: An overview. Educational Psychologist, 25(1), 3-17.

  42. Zimmerman, B. J. (2002). Becoming a self-regulated learner: An overview.Theory Into Practice, 41(2), 64-70.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

The texts published in this journal, unless otherwise indicated, are subject to a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-NoDerivativeWorks 3.0.Spain licence. They may be copied, distributed and broadcast provided that the author and the journal that publishes them, @tic. revista d'innovació educativa, are cited. Commercial use and derivative works are not permitted. The full licence can be consulted on Creative Commons

Editor: Servei de Formació Permanent i Innovació Educativa. Tel. 0034 961625030 | Fax. 0034 961625032 | Valencia. España

ISSN: 1989-3477 |  Depósito Legal: V5051-2008


Indexed in:


Consortial Journals